Xi’an is the first batch of national historical and cultural cities announced by the State Council. In history, more than a dozen dynasties have established their capitals here. It is one of the four ancient capitals in the world. It is the largest, longest and most influential capital in Chinese history. One of the capital  .
As early as 1 million years ago, the ancient people of Lantian built settlements here; 7000 years ago, during the Yangshao culture period, the rudiment of the city wall appeared here; in 2008, the late Neolithic period was unearthed at Yangguanzhai, Gaoling, Xi’an more than 6000 years ago. The urban relics were selected as the first archaeological discoveries in China that year. This is the earliest urban site discovered in China to date. It also advanced the urban history of Xi'an to the late Neolithic period more than 6000 years ago. [17-19]
In ancient times, the " Lantian Ape Man " thrived here; the Neolithic "Banpo ancestors" established tribes here. In the economic life of Banpo people, agricultural production occupies a very important position. They burned trees, reclaimed farmland, and planted. Dryland crops such as millet. At that time, the tools used in production activities were made of stones, animal bones, antlers and pottery pieces. In addition to food production, Banpo people have also begun to grow vegetables. Livestock breeding had already appeared at that time. At that time, the livestock raised were pigs and dogs, mainly pigs. Hunting and fishing were also important production activities at that time. 
Xi'an World Expo Park
In 1957, on the basis of archaeological excavations, the Xi’an Banpo Museum was built on site. It was completed in April 1958 and officially opened to the public. It is China’s first Neolithic site museum and the first prehistoric settlement site museum in New China. . The museum covers an area of about 3,000 square meters. There are semi-cryptic houses, cellars, fences, and large ditch for protection and flood discharge. The original appearance of Banpo’s primitive social village is relatively intact. 
Xi'an was called " Fenghao " in the Western Zhou Dynasty . "Feng Hao" is the collective name of Feng Jing and Hao Jing built by King Zhou Wen and King Zhou Wu respectively.  In the Western Zhou Dynasty, Bo Jichang (Wang Wenwang) built Fengjing in the southwest of present-day Xi'an, and moved his subjects from Qishan Zhouyuan to this place. He also ordered his son Ji Fa (King Wu of Zhou) to build Gaojing on the east bank of Fengshui. The latter is the political center, and the former is the religious and cultural center, collectively known as "Zong Zhou", which is the beginning of the city of Xi'an. After King Wu defeated Shang and established the Zhou Dynasty, Feng Hao was the capital, which was the beginning of Xi'an as the capital. [twenty one]
The "Government of Chengkang" in the early Western Zhou Dynasty marked the heyday of Chinese slavery society. In 841 BC, the "national riots" in Hojing was the earliest large-scale mass riot to expel the king in Chinese history. [twenty two]
Restoration of the Qin Afang Palace Site
Most of the area of Afang Palace in Xianyang, the capital of Qin Dynasty, is in present-day Xi'an. The Terracotta Warriors and Qin Mausoleum are in present-day Xi'an (located in Lintong District, Xi'an). The Qin Zongmiao was on the south bank of the Wei River, and Jingke's assassination of King Qin took place in the Qin Zhangtai Palace (later the front hall of the Weiyang Palace in the Han Dynasty); the layout of the palace in the Qin Dynasty did not form the layout of the palace city, the imperial city and the three halls. Qin Xianyang city straddles the Weihe River north and south. 
In 202 BC, Liu Bang established the Western Han Dynasty in Chang'an (now Seoul, the northwestern suburb of Xi'an) . Liu Bangding was the capital of Guanzhong, taking the meaning of the local Chang'an Township, and named "Chang'an", which means "long-term peace and stability". 
Restoration of Weiyang Palace Site in Han Dynasty
The Han Chang'an City is located on the Guanzhong Plain south of the Weihe River , with an area of about 36 square kilometers. In the Western Han Dynasty, as the capital, Chang'an City has always been the political, economic and cultural center of the country. It is also the first large-scale city with many residents in Chinese history. Han Chang'an was established on the basis of the Qin Xianyang site, " Historical Records ": "Han Chang'an, Qin Xianyang also", Zhang Heng's "Xijing Fu" stated: Western Han Chang'an "Looks at the Qin system, cross-week method", "Sanfu Huang "Picture·Preface" also says: "Wu Zhao, ruled Xianyang, because of the Han capital". "Old Tang Geography", said:. "The capital, so the Xianyang Qin, Han Chang also" Qin Xianyang From King Wen Hui, will continue to expand southward, built in the south of the Weihe chapter sets , Hing Le Palace , Ganquan Palace , Xin Palace , Afang Palace and Seven Temples and other buildings. After Liu Bang won the world, he was persuaded by Lou Jing and Zhang Liang to establish the capital Chang'an . The Xingle Palace of Qin was renovated and changed to Changle Palace, and Weiyang Palace was built on the basis of Qin Zhangtai. That is to say, the Han Chang'an City was established on the basis of the Qin capital Xianyang, indicating that the Han Dynasty inherited the Qin system on the site of the capital. The palaces of the Han dynasty were in the Hancheng Reserve of present-day Xi’an, located to the north of the North Second Ring Road, while the tomb of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty Jingdi was in the territory of present-day Xianyang. After the opening of the Silk Road, Chang'an became the center of Eastern civilization. Historically, it was said that "there is Rome in the west and Chang'an in the east".  
In the second year of Emperor Kaihuang of the Sui Dynasty (582), Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty issued an order to build the new capital Daxing City at the site of the present Xi'an city southeast of Chang'an City in Han Dynasty. At the beginning of the founding of the Sui Dynasty, the capital was still in the old city of Chang'an. Therefore, Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty abandoned the old Chang'an City north of Longshouyuan, and chose a new site in the southeast of Han Chang'an City, south of Longshouyuan, to build a new city, Daxingcheng. [twenty one]
Datang Furong Garden
After the Tang Dynasty established the capital of Chang'an, Daxing City in the Sui Dynasty was changed to Chang'an City, and additional repairs and expansions were carried out. In the eighth year of Zhenguan (634 years), Daming Palace was built on the original Longshouyuan in the northeast of Waiguocheng. After that, the city walls, towers, Xingqing Palace and other buildings were continuously built. The palace city completely overlaps with today's Xi'an city, and the imperial palace overlaps with today's Ming city wall of Xi'an. The tombs of the emperors of the Tang Dynasty, such as Zhaoling and Qianling, were mostly in Xianyang. In the Tang Dynasty, the eighteen tombs of the Tang Dynasty were all under the jurisdiction of Jingzhaofu, and Qianling was Fengtian County of Jingzhaofu. 
From the second year of Emperor Wen Kaihuang in the Sui Dynasty (582) to the fifth year of Emperor Gaozong's Yonghui in the Tang Dynasty (654), it was basically ready, which lasted 72 years. The city covers an area of 84.1 square kilometers, the layout is neatly planned, and the east and west are strictly symmetrical. It is divided into three parts: the palace city, the imperial city and the outer city.
The urban structural layout of Chang'an fully reflects the grandeur of the peak period of feudal society, and has an epoch-making influence in the history of Chinese architecture and the city. [twenty one]
Tang Daming Palace Restoration Picture 
In the Five Dynasties , the Later Liang changed Jingzhao Mansion to Yongzhou , and Daan Mansion was established. Later Tang Dynasty changed Daan Mansion to Jingzhao Mansion. In the Song Dynasty , Shaanxi Road was set, and Yongxing Jun Road was set later. After unifying China, Zhao Kuangyin had intended to move the capital to Chang'an, but in the end he had to give up due to opposition from his subordinates. In the Jin Dynasty, Yongxing Jun Road was changed to Jingzhaofu Road.
At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, the scope of Chang'an City still used the "new city" rebuilt by Jiedushi Han Jiansuo after the destruction of Chang'an City in the early Tang Dynasty, and used the name Jingzhaofu . In the ninth year of the Yuan Dynasty ( 1272 ), Yuan Shizu named his third son, Mangge, the King of Anxi, guarding his land and establishing the Anxi Palace . In the 16th year of Yuan Dynasty ( 1279 ), the Jingzhao Mansion was named Anxi Road. Later, due to the King Anxi rebellion, Anxi was withdrawn. In the first year of Emperor Qing ( 1312 ), Anxi Road was changed to Fengyuan Road. According to the " Picture of Fengyuan City" drawn by Li Haowen in " Changan Zhitu ", there is only one gate on each side, the south gate is east, the north gate is west, the east and west gates are asymmetrical, and there is no symmetrical structure in the city. The market is concentrated in the northwest corner of the city, such as Arima City, Yangshi and Qinchuan Station. In the northeast corner, there are Prince's Mansion (Ming Qin Wang's Mansion), Chenghuang Temple, Chayuan, etc. Marco Polo traveled here in the twelfth year of the Yuan Dynasty (1275) and wrote: "The city is very magnificent, and it is the capital of the capital of the capital... This city is prosperous in industry and commerce, produces a lot of silk, and the residents make all kinds of golden silk... Necessary things are found in the city and are of low value." 
Ming City Wall of Xi'an
The pattern of Xi'an was formed in the Ming Dynasty , and the name of Xi'an also originated from the Ming Dynasty. In March of the second year of Ming Hongwu ( 1369 ), General Xu Da marched into Fengyuan Road and changed Fengyuan Road to Xi'an Prefecture.
In the third year of Hongwu ( 1370 ), Zhu Yuanzhang appointed his second son Zhu Xie as King of Qin. In the same year, the palace of the King of Qin was built in the northeast corner of Xi'an City. The palace of the Qin prince was called the "king city", and later it was called the "imperial city". The wall was newly built in the 7th to 11th years of Hongwu in the Ming Dynasty. The drum tower and bell tower were built in the 13th year of Hongwu (1380) and the 17th year of Hongwu ( 1384 ). Its location is no different from the Jingshi Tower and Bell Tower in the Yuan Dynasty.
In the twenty-fourth year of Hongwu (1391), after Zhu Biao visited Xi'an, he once proposed to move the capital to Xi'an, but he died of illness after returning to Nanjing. [twenty one]
In the Qing Dynasty, the city of Xi'an remained the same, but a Manchu garrison city was built in the northeast of the city, the Han army garrison city was built in the southeast of the city, and the Governor's Office in the southwest of the Bell Tower was added. At the time of the Gengzi Change, Cixi and Guangxu fled west and stayed in Xi'an for a year.
On October 22, 1911, an armed uprising broke out in Xi'an after the outbreak of the Revolution of 1911. Manchuria, which accounted for about a quarter of the total city area, was captured and burned by the insurgents, becoming a blind spot in Xi'an.
Bell Tower (near) and Drum Tower (far)
On November 25th in the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), the Shaanxi Provincial Government resolved to establish Xi'an City.  On November 8th in the 19th year of the Republic of China (1930), the Shaanxi Provincial Government revoked the establishment of Xi'an City, and the district was restored to Chang'an County. 
On March 5 in the 21st year of the Republic of China (1932), the National Government declared Xi’an as the accompanying capital  and established the National Government Xijing Preparatory Committee. However, the Xijing Municipal Government was never established, and the Xijing Preparatory Committee was abolished. 
Ming City Wall-Yongning Gate Gate
During the Anti-Japanese War, Henan and other places were lost, and a large number of refugees poured into Xi'an along Longhai Road, mainly in the railway station and Shangren Road (now Jiefang Road). Shangren Road quickly developed into a new commercial district, and the commercial center of Xi'an began to concentrate in the east of the city.
After the Long March of the Communist Party of China, northern Shaanxi became the Soviet area, and Xi'an became an important front line of the Kuomintang . The Xi'an Incident occurred here on December 12 in the 25th year of the Republic of China (1936) . [twenty one]
On September 1st of the 33rd year of the Republic of China (1944), the Xi'an Municipal Government was formally established as a city under the jurisdiction of Shaanxi Province. 
On August 1st in the 36th year of the Republic of China (1947), Xi'an was upgraded to a municipality directly under the central government of the Executive Yuan of the National Government and one of the 12 municipalities in the country. 
On May 20, 1949, Xi'an was liberated and was a city under the jurisdiction of the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border Region.
In 1950, it was changed to the leadership of the Northwest Military and Political Committee. On January 27, 1953, the Northwest Military and Political Committee was changed to the jurisdiction of the Northwest Administrative Committee. Xi'an was under the Northwest Administrative Committee. On March 12, 1953, it was changed to a municipality directly under the Central Government, one of the 12 municipalities directly under the Central Government in the country; on June 19, 1954, it was changed to a provincial city.
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